Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Term Paper Online - 3 Options For Term Paper OnlineAs the term paper online becomes more popular, it is important to know that there are various ways to do this online. Some of the methods include using a paperless tool such as Google Docs, using a journal format of writing online, and using an online web application.Using paperless software for term papers is one method of doing this. There are various free options that can be used to avoid having to buy a paper to put in your classroom. Of course, it is up to you to determine which software to use.If you are going to use the Google Docs option to do term paper online, you will need to have an internet connection. If you choose to write your term paper with a journal format, you will need to make sure that the journal format is something that is available online as well. If the term paper online solution is using an online application, you will need to find out whether or not the online application is compatible with your operating system. If it is not, you will have to download the application to your computer before using it.The online tool, you will want to consider using for term paper online is Google Docs. This tool has built-in features that allow you to manage your assignments online. One of the things you will want to consider is the ability to 'add' files to your project. Of course, it is important to make sure that this feature is available before using this tool.Another way to do term paper online is to use a journal format for your term paper. This type of paper is generally easier to work with and requires less typing. The disadvantage is that there is no easy way to add files to a journal format, but it is easier to manipulate your project and also to incorporate changes that you make.The third way to do term paper online is to use an online web application. Although these applications are less common, there are some good ones that can make online work easy. Many of the online web applications h ave built-in resources that can make it easier to complete projects, including tasks, and deadlines.Although term paper online has become increasingly popular, there are still ways to do this. Make sure that you research the options that are available before making your decision.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Abortion: For? Against? Since the legalization of abortion in 1973, over 57 million unborn children have been killed, more than the entire population of Spain! (Guttmacher) I strongly disagree with abortion, no one should be able to kill the baby/babies growing inside of a woman. It takes innocent lives of unborn human beings that are, living, unique babies with a heartbeat! There are many things that can go wrong when having or thinking about having an abortion, such as it is damaging to relationships and families, there are many harsh ways to abort a baby, which can cause some problems also, and it could cause emotional damage to one. Whenever a family member dies, everyone is affected. It would be no different than a harmless child losing their lives. The thought of it never really goes away. It is always there, in the back of your mind, waiting for the chance to pop back up again. Even with time it will never ease, the thought of what you did. It compounds tragedy. Sometimes, th e circumstances of a woman becoming pregnant, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t so great. Maybe she was raped or the baby has been diagnosed with a defect or complications. Although, one tragedy is not to be answered with another. They must now be forced into a spur of the moment decision, to take the life a child instead of giving them a chance to defy the odds. After an abortion, the rate of marital breakups and relationship dissolution is anywhere from 40 to 75 per cent, often related to the breakdown of intimacyShow MoreRelatedAgainst Abortion Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAgainst Abortion Abortion has been one of the many controversial topics being an issue in America, and it has been in some parts of world today. People say that abortion is big business, meaning that today it can give America lots of money for all the young girls getting pregnant and making them abort. Teenpregnancy.org, a site managed by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, says that there are 750,000 teen pregnancies annually in America. Some of these pregnancies occurRead MoreArguments For And Against Abortion1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArguments for and Against Abortion The battle over whether to legalize or ban abortion in the United States has greatly increased in recent years; the moral, ethical and legal had been a continuous fight in our society. The abortion issue is also the most passionate and debatable in the United States to whether allow one to have free will over their body or have the government make that decision. Furthermore, it is one of the leading debates in political races. In this society everyone has aRead MoreAbortion Argument Against Abortion749 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDoes a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to choose to have an abortion outweigh a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s right to be born? The controversy at hand is whether the rights of a women outweigh the rights of a baby, and whether a mother should be given the rights to pursue a procedure like an abortion. To clarify an abortion is a medical procedure that ends a pregnancy in which a doctor uses a vacuum and suction to suck out a fetus from the uterus. The issue is whether the fetus who has th e potential to be a rational, productive human beingRead More Against Abortion Essay1916 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAgainst Abortion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Why is it that by 21 days into the fetal development the babys heart begins to beat, but yet in most peoples eyes the baby is still not technically alive That heart beat means nothing, it doesnt represent a human person whom God has created in his own image and has had a plan for that baby ever since the beginning of time. To most people that statement isn?t allowing women and their families freedom of choice. And yet that baby isnt given any say in its freedomRead MoreAgainst Or Forward About Abortion1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMiriam Ochoa English 1 Professor Pelonis June 2 , 2016 Against or Forward about Abortion TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society consists of many health concerns, unresolved, and controversial issues. Many of these issues can be viewed in relation to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s morals, ethics, and religious beliefs. This creates a society that is divided by opposing viewpoints. The 2012 Merriam-Webster dictionary defines abortion as, Ã¢â¬Å"The termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the deathRead MoreArguments Against Abortion Essay1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe debate on whether abortion should be legal, or illegal has become a controversial topic that has divided the nation into two. The group of people who donÃ¢â¬â¢t see anything wrong with the issue refer to their group as pro-choice supporters. Their main belief about abortion is that because a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s body belongs to herself it should be up to her on whether she wants to keep a baby or not. Those who are against abortion and feel it should be illegal think of themselves as pro-life sup porters. TheyRead MoreOutline Of The Laws Against Abortion1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOutline Title Ã¢â¬â Laws against Abortion Complete the sentence The Purpose of this Paper is . . . The purpose of this paper is to show how the states are creating laws to try and prohibit abortions and how these laws are putting unnecessary hardships on the women trying to receive them. Introduction Abortion is a controversial topic within the United States; states are allowed to make different laws in regards to the topic but must not go against the 14th amendment of the constitution. Many lawsRead MoreBiblical Argument Against Abortions1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthics February 2, 2013 Rational Argument Against Abortions Biblical Argument Against Abortions In this paper, I will discuss arguments against abortions. The first sets of arguments I will discuss are biblical arguments. That being said, I must begin by acknowledging that the Bible doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t say anything about abortion directly. Abortion was so unthinkable to an Israelite woman that there was no need to even mention it in the criminal code. Why was abortion an unthinkable act? First, children wereRead MoreThe Main Barrier Against The Abortion1799 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbortion has always been a controversial topic for several decades. In Latin America, there is approximately a triple abortion rate when compared to those who live in Western Europe (Sedgh et al., 2016). This is because of a pervasive unspoken belief, contraception and highly restrictive abortion laws (Dzuba, Winikoff and PeÃ ±a, 2013). Women who resort to private and unsafe methods to end unexpected or unwanted pregnancies could expose themselves to the risk of complications and fatality ratio. TheRead Mor eArgument Against Abortion On Demand934 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn this essay I shall argue against abortion on demand. By abortion on demand I mean the taking of life, of the fetal life, and how a woman could enter her doctor s office or local women s health clinic and ask, or Ã¢â¬Å"demandÃ¢â¬ , to have an abortion, she would then be able to get the next available appointment to do just that. There are several different reasons why one may be pro-life. A few arguments against abortion may include how abortion should not be used as another form of contraception, and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
President James Madison held the white house office from 1808-1816. During his tenure he had to deal with the ramifications of his policies from when he was Secretary of State under Thomas Jefferson and The War of 1812. These two major points are what shaped most of his presidential terms. It was his second term that helped with the postwar expansion of America and the split in the Democratic Party system. It was also during his second term that he helped America gain itÃ¢â¬â¢s economic independence from Great Britain. After his terms of office were over he retired home to his plantation and joined an university council to help settle disputes about issues among the states such as the freed slaves. James Madison ran for president in election 1808. In this election the Democratic Republican competed against Charles C. Pinkney from South Carolina and Rufus King from New York. Anti-Madison newspapers were printed out immediately, with the Federalist PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s directing, criticizing Madison and his Belief in the Embargo Act which he helped to shape in 1807. However, by early December few had doubts on who would emerge as victorious in the election campaign. So when Madison won by a devastating landslide, 144 votes to PinkneyÃ¢â¬â¢s 44, few were surprised by the outcome. MadisonÃ¢â¬â¢s public favor had multiple high and low points throughout his career. Like other presidents who entered office in unfavorable times, Madison was criticized for everything he did the moment he entered office. FromShow MoreRelatedA Birth Of A Legend1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIt was a birth of a legend; it did not start with Ã¢â¬Å"once up one a timeÃ¢â¬ because the story was not a fiction, but the man himself was like a fictional hero. Father of a nation. James Madison born in Port Conway Virginia, from James Madison and Eleanor Rose Conway in 1751. He was youngest of twelve kids, and only seven of them could made through adulthood. His father was a tobacco planter having more than 4,000-acre land and many slaves. Life was not generous and compassionate when it came to his healthRead MoreThe Life Of James Madison Essay1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Life of James Madison Madison Williams Central High School November 9, 2015 3rd Period Abstract In my paper I will state and explain the least known aspects of James Madison. James Madison contributed to some of the most simple and complex events that have not been recognized. For his job well done, I am willing to make those aspects known. The Life of James Madison James Madison, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Father on the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬ , contributed to quite a few intellectual eventsRead MoreA Perfect Union By Catherine Allgor Essay1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnion by Catherine Allgor describes the life of Dolley Madison starting with her first marriage to John Todd whom she only married because her bed-ridden father told her to. Although the marriage to John was a happy marriage it was soon brought to an abrupt end when the yellow fever hit; killing DolleyÃ¢â¬â¢s husband and younger son. The newly widowed Dolley took many trips into town and soon she caught the attention of Congressman James Madison who fell so madly in love with her. This attraction ledRead MoreJames Madison : The First President Of The United States991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages James Madison was the smallest elected president of the United States; he measured 5 feet 4 inches and weighing less than 100 pounds. He was born on March 16, 1751 in Port Conway, Virginia. Madison Jr. was born in a family where tobacco planting was the main resource of income. His father James Madison Sr., owned a huge tobacco plantation with his mother Nelly Conway. Madison was the oldest of 10 children, and as a young kid he suffered from psychosomatic, epilepsy, and voice impairmentRead More1998 Dbq Essay1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHour Although Republicans and Federalists were characterized as having particular views towards the implementation of the Constitution, the Jefferson and Madison presidencies prove that even though virtually they believe one thing, realistically they could very possibly act another way. Following the making of the Constitution, James Madison brought forth the warning of political factions or parties as we know today in one of his many inputs into the Federalist Papers. As the Constitution was offeredRead MoreThe Life and Accomplishments of James Madison995 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJames Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia on March 16th, 1751. Madison received an education at the college of New Jersey and graduated in 1771. He studied Latin, geography, and Philosophy. In 1774 he joined the local committee of safety which was a patriot group that monitored the actions of the local militia. Two years later Madison became a delegate in the Virginia convention and took part in the framing of the Virginia constitution. During the general election for delegates in the stateRead MoreEssay The Creation of the American Republicn - James Madison1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Creation of the American Republicn - James Madison James Madison prided himself on his knowledge from books and theories. Madison was born into a class of Virginia planters. His father was the wealthiest landowner in Virginia and it was known that Madison would lead a financially secure life. This factor helped him in his pursuit of education. He gained opportunities to go to elite schools because of his status. Madison was ambitious and he graduated from the College of New Jersey a year earlyRead MoreBiography of James Madison: The Father of the Constitution Essay991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages James Madison,widely known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬ was born on March 16,1751 in Port Conway,Virginia. He was born into a wealthy family. His father,James Madison Sir.,gained wealth from inheritance and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s, Kelly Conway, side of the family were also rich as her father made a living by being a tobacco merchant. A surprising fact that,despite coming from a such preposterous family, James was rather ill as a child. Madison was a victim to psychosomatic and as well as stress-inducedRead MoreTo What Extent Did The Presidencies Of Jefferson And Madison Reduce The Tensions Of The 1790s?1167 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCaiser Bravo Rigg APUSH 6 October, 2015 To what extent did the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison reduce the tensions of the 1790s? The presidency of George Washington was a difficult pair of terms to follow. John Adams tried to follow the precedent that the first president had set, but the second president only managed to polarize the nation among two parties: the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Although his decisions are today looked at with mixed feelings, at the time John Adams fellRead MoreThe Founding Fathers : Virginia1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn March of 1751, James Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia to Nellie and James Madison. Once he reached eighteen, Madison attended the College of New Jersey, more commonly known today as Princeton (Ã¢â¬Å"James MadisonÃ¢â¬â¢s BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). During this time period, it was strange for a man to go beyond the colony for his education (Ã¢â¬Å"The Founding Fathers: VirginiaÃ¢â¬ ). However, Madison went against the social norm, which ultimately gave him an advantage by broadening his understandings of all the different
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theEnglish Language for Colleges and Universities. Answer: Introduction The language assessment or language testing refers to the field, which study about the first, second or other languages taught in schools, colleges or universities. According to Jenkins Leung, (2013), the part of applied linguistic focuses on the assessment of the language used in the workplace context or in the citizenship, immigration and asylum contest. In general, the assessment helps the students in the schools or colleges to analyse their learning and improvement. In this essay, the language test has been evaluated through a classroom-based assessment to assess the improvements in the students understanding of skills and communication. It has two main priorities that indicate the overall impact of the learning procedures followed in the classroom. The study has discussed the various processes of language testing to analyse the students capacities and improvements to test their language learning process (Cohen, 2014). Therefore, the purpose of the classroom-based assessment has been disclosed to set the objectives of the study and then the role of teachers or assessors has been evaluated to analyse the overall testing process. Discussion The purpose of classroom-based assessment is to test the learning improvement of the students in a class whether the study procedure is helping them to improve their understanding about the lessons in class. According to Kaplan, (2015), assessments are required to develop the skills of the students about what they had learnt from the lessons in class. These assessments can be conducted in various manners and every process has its own pros and cons. Therefore, it is the responsibility of a teacher to decide which assessment process should be best for the students to measure their improvement. There are other purposes of this classroom-based assessment. It helps to inform and guide the teachers about the teaching and learning processes, helps students to set their learning goals and motivate the students for improving their skills. In thus study, the essential objectives are to analyse the effect of lessons taught in the classes on students, to evaluate their improvement in classes, t o analyse the benefits of the learning processes and to assess the effectiveness of teaching procedures in classes. Therefore, the study is focussing on the purpose of the assessments to meet these objectives. There are some processes or assessments instruments for assessing the learning improvements of the students. The students can be accessed through the activities of quizzes, writing assignments, tests and many more, which have the facility to get the outcome instantly. Therefore, this kind of assessments has proved to be effective as the teachers can easily identify the drawbacks of the students through this. As opined by Yu, (2014), the language can be learnt through formal, informal, assessed, not assessed, structured, unstructured, fun, arduous, and essential and hobby or interest. The formal setting can be in the kindergartens, language centres, schools, clubs, universities, workplaces, short courses and TAFES. In these settings, the students can be accessed through the school like environment where the content is almost set from earlier. The processes of assessments also are formal in these settings and the students are assessed based on the qualifications and accreditations. On the other hand, the informal setting is the called in the setting of homely environment where the students can learn with their family or friends or in a homely ambiance (Richards Rodgers, 2014). In these cases, the assessment process follows the interest of the students who are learning from various practical incidents rather than the formal contents that have set before. The assessments in this case will find out the effectiveness of the learning in the outcome of social connectedness and life skills. There can be another type of assessment, which focuses on the interest or fun or hobby of the learner to analyse their improvements. Therefore, the processes in which the improvement can be analysed properly of a students is perfect for the students to assess them. There are some classroom-based assessments such as, alternative, educational, authentic, informal, formative and statutory (Bygate, Swain Skehan, 2013). All these assessment processes have their individual importance. The quiz is one of the assessments processes that help to improve the practice of regular lessons through a fun activity. The teachers to reduce the stress level of the students between classes can use it. As quiz is considered as a fun game rather learning, therefore, the students find it more interesting to participate. However, it is a fun game; the teacher can assess the improvements of the students from this classroom-based assessment procedure. Apart from this, there are many ways to assess the students in classes with fun activities like quiz. Likewise, debate competition can also be used to analyse the understanding of the students about the language-based subjects such as English. On the other hand, the writing assignments can be very helpful for the students to assess their learning. If the students cannot understand the subject properly, then they cannot develop the content in writing to explain their understanding (Kunnan, 2013). Therefore, it can be used as an assessment program to analyse the students improvements through assessment. General class tests also can be the assessment process for understanding the improvement in a frequent manner. Although it is a formal process, which the students have to face in the classes and the teachers think, it can be the most effective process to assess a students whether he or she is able to learn the language in a proper way or not. Therefore, in this case the teachers have to play a crucial role to develop the questions based on which it can be analysed the students improvements. All these processes are helpful to meet the objectives in this study to get the benefit of the purposes of classroom-based assessments for language testing. There are some language assessment approaches to conduct this classroom-based assessment such as, Discrete-point testing approach, Communicative Testing Approach, Integrative Testing Approach and Performance testing approach (Knig et al., 2014). The Discrete-point testing approach is the process that can assess the students understanding about the components of language. Any language can be divided into its component parts and can be tested through the assessments like reading, writing, speaking, listening, phonology, lexicon, syntax and morphology. This discrete point tests are aiming to achieve a high reliability factor by testing a large number discrete items. In the Communicative Testing Approach, the students communication level on a particular language is tested through the teachers or assessors. In this case, the test should be conducted through the processes of listening, speaking, writing and reading. In the testing procedure, the teachers can assess the students in involvin g them into various pretending situations to test their communication levels in that Language. Therefore, it can be considered as the performance based testing approach for the language assessment. Along with this, the approach of Integrative Testing helps to put back the language skills, which were taken out from the language with discrete items (Richards Schmidt, 2013). Additionally, it helps to assess the capacity of a learner to understand the capability of the person to communicate through the language, which they are learning. Apart from this, there is another approach Performance testing approach to evaluate the performance level of learner after learning the language. The performance level can be accessed through the various testing processes to assess their improvements. According to McLaughlin, (2013), this approach has some principles such as, in this process the teachers have to state the overall goal of the performance and to analyse the performance level they have to evaluate the performance checking process and then can test the performance. This process will help the assessors to understand the improvement of the students. All these are some important approaches that help the assessors to analyse the students improvement in the learning process. The role of the assessor or the teacher plays a crucial part in the process of classroom-based assessment. The teachers have to serve internal and external responsibilities to complete the assessments processes. Monitoring the assessment processes, keeping records of the progress of students and giving the results to other teachers as well as parents and students, selection, certification and meeting statutory requirements are the main responsibilities of an assessor. As per the point of view of some of the eminent scholars, assessment is the systematic procedures based on which one individual student has been tasted as per the knowledge, skills and competencies. Only teaching and learning process is not enough for evaluating the minds of students. Students should be tasted time to time in order to know their learning progress. Teachers have to play a major role in the entire process of assessment (Allen et al., 2013). While dealing with the students within a classroom, teachers should gather detailed information regarding the problems and obstacles of the students. Based on those issues an ideal teacher should proceed for enhancing the mental skills and development of students. However, this particular essay has provided an in-depth understanding about the role of teachers for arranging the entire process of assessment effectively. As stated by Astin (2012), assessment is one of the most effective ways of data collection procedure based on which the teachers can evaluated the growth and the progress of the students. After conducting an entire class, the students may not be able to understand that the teachers have conveyed in the classroom (Reschly Christenson, 2012). Therefore, assessment is the only way, based on which teachers can get an in-depth overview about the learning improvement of every individual student equally. Before, conducting an assessment the teachers generally tend to take an effective remedial class (Treagust, 2012). In this particular class, every student within the classroom is allowed to throw any questions related to their study. This particular class is considered as interactive session where the students have to play a major role along with the teachers. After clarifying the doubt to the students, teachers tend to take an effective interaction with them. Teacher intends to ask some o f the basic questions to the students based on which they can evaluate whether students have understood or not. After conducting the remedial session, the entire process of assessment is started so that students can carry good marks. At the time of this assessment, teachers have to follow some of the major factors (Brown, Bull Pendlebury, 2013). The teachers should follow the expression of every individual student on how they are feeling comfortable with the assessment questions. If any individual students are followed uncomfortable with the assessment paper, the teacher should note the name of this individual as soon as possible. After the end of the session this particular students should be taken an effective interview session in order to know the problems individually. At the same time, some of the major factors should be taken into consideration. At the time of conducting the assessment, teachers should maintain strictness at the assessment hall. Students should not discuss with each other at the time of assessment session. All the solutions should be conducted at the own competency of the students (Crisp, 2012). However, after conducting the entire process of assessment, teachers should evaluate the data about the performance of students. The students who have performed well in the entire session should not be highlighted. Teachers should enjoy the success the achievement of student learning process. In the assessment, the students who have failed to provide an effective feedback should get more guidance and training from the teachers. The role of an ideal teacher in this particular case should be more vital (Falchikov, 2013). At the very first stage, teacher should identify the student who has failed to perform well in the assessment after collecting data. After identifying this individual, the teacher should make an effective session in order to know the problem. A friendly environment should be needed to deal with such kinds of students (Treagust, 2012). Teachers while making the face-to-face interaction should maintain a polite and humble approach to the students so that the students do not hesitate to share their point of views. The role of an ideal teacher should be providing equal respect and dignity to the students from different culture and background (Healey, 2014). While dealing with the different kinds of learners, the teachers tend to come into close contact with students from various attitudes. However, it has been observed that the students have faced immense difficulties and challenges for maintaining their learning process due to the family background. As a result, those students fail to communicate properly with the teachers at the classroom (Imrie et al., 2014). These are the major problems, due to which students fail to provide their best performance in the assessment. The teacher should deal with those students especially. One of the major roles of an ideal teacher is to provide equal priority and response to the students of every culture and background. Arranging parents teacher meeting is also been considered as one of the most effective initiatives for improving the future growth of the students. The mental and learning growth of a student is highly dependent on the family background of a particular student. After collecting sufficient data and information from the assessments, the teacher should make an effective interaction with the parents individually (Piech et al., 2013). Teachers should give an in-depth overview regarding the growth and the success of an individual. The students who have provided negative feedback on the assessment need guidance that is more effective. Therefore, parents would have to take a major initiative regarding the factor as well, so that their children can get a successful future. The role of an eminent teacher in this case is not only to convince the students, but also to make the parents understand on how their children can grow their mental skill and ability (Reschly Christenson, 2012). The paren ts should provide a good environment to their children so that they can get a sufficient time for continuing their study. Conclusion The intention of this study is to analyse the purpose of classroom-based assessment and the various processes to find the importance or usefulness of the assessment. The usefulness of these procedures has been analysed and the role and responsibilities of the assessors has been evaluated to understand the importance of language test through classroom-based assessment. However, the entire essay has provided an in-depth understanding about the importance of assessment for improving the future growth of the students. At the same time the role of teachers have also been provided equal priority in this particular study. Reference List Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary school classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the classroom assessment scoring system-secondary.School Psychology Review,42(1), 76. Astin, A. W. (2012).Assessment for excellence: The philosophy and practice of assessment and evaluation in higher education. Rowman Littlefield Publishers. Brown, G. A., Bull, J., Pendlebury, M. (2013).Assessing student learning in higher education. Routledge. Bygate, M., Swain, M., Skehan, P. (2013).Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing. Routledge. Cohen, A. D. (2014).Strategies in learning and using a second language. Routledge. Crisp, G. T. (2012). Integrative assessment: reframing assessment practice for current and future learning.Assessment Evaluation in Higher Education,37(1), 33-43. Falchikov, N. (2013).Improving assessment through student involvement: Practical solutions for aiding learning in higher and further education. Routledge. Healey, M. (2014, February). Students as partners in learning and teaching in higher education. InWorkshop Presented at University College Cork(Vol. 12, pp. 15-00). Imrie, B. W., Cox, K., Imrie, B. W., Miller, A., Miller, A. (2014).Student assessment in higher education: a handbook for assessing performance. Routledge. Jenkins, J., Leung, C. (2013).English as a lingua franca. John Wiley Sons, Inc.. Kaplan, C. S. (2015).Secondary Foreign Language Teachers Cognitions and Practices Related to Classroom-Based Student Assessment(Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University). Knig, J., Blmeke, S., Klein, P., Suhl, U., Busse, A., Kaiser, G. (2014). Is teachers' general pedagogical knowledge a premise for noticing and interpreting classroom situations? A video-based assessment approach.Teaching and Teacher Education,38, 76-88. Kunnan, A. J. (2013).Validation in language assessment. Taylor Francis. McLaughlin, B. (2013).Second language acquisition in childhood: Volume 2: School-age Children. Psychology Press. Piech, C., Huang, J., Chen, Z., Do, C., Ng, A., Koller, D. (2013). Tuned models of peer assessment in MOOCs.arXiv preprint arXiv:1307.2579. Reschly, A. L., Christenson, S. L. (2012). Jingle, jangle, and conceptual haziness: Evolution and future directions of the engagement construct. InHandbook of research on student engagement(pp. 3-19). Springer US. Richards, J. C., Rodgers, T. S. (2014).Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge university press. Richards, J. C., Schmidt, R. W. (2013).Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Routledge. Yu, G. (2014). Book review: Classroom-Based Assessment in the School Foreign Language Classroom.Language Testing,31(2), 264-267.
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
Comparison between Domestic and International HRM The practices of international HRM and domestic HRM involve a number of commonalities. For instance, personnel planning, staffing, recruitment, selection, evaluation and development as well as remuneration are practices carried out by both domestic and international HRM. However, the operations of domestic HRM involve employees within the border of a single nation whereas international HRM encompasses three categories of nationals (Farndale Paauwe, 2005).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Management (HRM) in a Multinational Enterprise specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In other words, international HRM utilizes the services of personnel from the parent nation where the corporation is headquartered. Additionally, global HRM deals with employees from host countries where the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s subsidiary offices are located. Moreover, international HRM utilizes other third countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ personnel as sources of labor, research as well as development. Despite the commonalities in the practices of domestic and international HRM, two main differences exist in their practices. The differences arise from the complications in operations of international HRM and the employment procedures of personnel from different nations. Considering the complexities of operations in different countries, Multinational Enterprises (MNE) must identify and comprehend the best ways of managing the geographically dispersed personnel within foreign subsidiaries in order to have control of both domestic and foreign employees as well as gain international competitive edge (Farndale Paauwe, 2005). In other words, international HRM practices are more complex compared to domestic HRM due to a number of reasons. First, the international HRM tackles international taxation, coordinates foreign currencies and exchange rates. Further, the HR of an MNE manages the concerns of workers from different cultures as opposed domestic HR managers who only manage employees of a single country. Moreover, international HRM practices must adhere to external concerns in its foreign subsidiaries including local codes of conduct, religious beliefs and providing employment opportunity to the natives. Regarding the employment of diverse national groups of employees, international HRM must follow the set regulations concerning the recruitment of personnel. For instance, employees who work abroad and are United States nationals must remit annual income taxes to the government. In addition, the HR manager of MNE must incorporate the diverse cultures of employees in the operations. Standardization of HRM Practices The integration of international HRM practices through the imposition of parent practices to the subsidiaries of the MNEs is driven by two main factors. First, strategic aspects are invaluable drivers of standardizing HRM practices of MNEs. In other wo rds, the international corporations have to function within the framework of global circumstances.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the MNEs carry out operations within the peripheral perspectives of the industry as well as inter-organizational connections and agreements. Such aspects influence the practices of international HRM and the aims of the multinational enterprise (Harzing Ruysseveldt, 2004). Second, the organizational context is another important driver for standardization of HRM practices. In essence, the unique and diverse culture of MNEs and the institutional environment of the firms are widely thought-out to determine the explicit HRM practices in different states. Additionally, the organizational structures including exports and sales of subsidiaries affect HRM practices. The adoption of a worldwide corporate culture by an MNE has numerous advant ages. For example, in situations where high capital ventures are to be remunerated, the HR executives are supposed to utilize the business culture and lingo of the host nation. Additionally, the adoption of the international corporate culture for each subsidiary prevents the elimination of the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s protected market niche due to changing regulations of the host countries. The Role of Subsidiary For multinational enterprises to gain competitive edge in operations, the coordination and integration of the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ dispersed organizational units is critical. As such, the subsidiary is capable of achieving local receptiveness as well as international incorporation (Dowling et al., 2013). In other words, a subsidiary is critical in the operations of MNE because it function together with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters to achieve optimal output. The subsidiary performs a number of roles. In fact, the subsidiary acts as integrated player, implementer, local innovator as w ell as global pacesetter. As an integrated player, the subsidiary is tasked with the responsibility of coming up with useful information that can be utilized by the organization to realize optimal performance. Regarding the role of an implementer, the subsidiary undertakes the creation of individual knowledge and depends heavily on the data from sister ancillaries in performing the directives of the parent firm (Caldwell, 2003). The role of global innovator is where the subsidiary acts as the source of information and knowledge for other auxiliaries. Regarding the local innovator, the subsidiary has the full responsibility of developing appropriate expertise and proficiency in the important functional sections. In general, the subsidiary provides the coordination mechanisms and location competencies that enable the parent firm to achieve the overall strategic roles.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Management (HRM) in a Multinational Enterprise s pecifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Factors that Drive Localization of HRM Practices for MNE Adjusting HRM activities according to the norms and values of a host nation is significant for the success of MNEs (Farndale Paauwe, 2005). The major factors that drive localization of HRM practices for a multinational enterprise are the cultural and institutional environments. To begin with, the cultural environment of an organization affects the way in which the employees of the firm share diverse ways of life including common values, attitudes and behaviors transmitted through a gradual dynamic process over time (Dowling et al., 2013). In other words, culture influences work and HRM practices in a number of ways. For example, culture affects the remunerations conduct including the diverse anticipations of the executive and junior staff relations as well as performance. Additionally, in an organizational culture in which performance is based on incorporated personal social relations, equilibrium of inherent and extrinsic remunerations is often valued. On the contrary, a MNE whose work culture is based on individual autonomy and segregation, extrinsic rewards are normally emphasized. Institutional culture also ensures humane orientation of employees, collectivism in the organization as well as gender egalitarianism to minimize discrimination based on sex. Generally, the HRM practices of the MNE are invaluable in enhancing cohesion between subsidiaries through the adoption of the local norms and values (Dowling et al., 2013). Second, the institutional environment is significant in determining the performance as well as anticipations in subsidiaries. In other words, institutional norms and values such as attributes of education system and industrial relations are important HRM practices. For instance, in recruitment and selection processes, education qualifications are always considered. Further, the scope of labor legislati on and its regency of codification, which is another important institutional factor influences HRM practices through creating codes of conducts that are concerned with equal payment for equivalent job and the determination of minimum wages (Harzing Ruysseveldt, 2004). In general, the institutional environment affects the staffing decisions of MNE. Localization of HRM practices has a number of advantages. First, localization saves on expert costs in terms of salaries and other benefits. The costs of hiring experts are high since the firm has to cater for the expenses of international assignments. As such, the firm utilizes local personnel whose packages are less considered to expert salaries and benefits. Second, localization of HRM practices also utilizes the talents of the local people through recruitment and selection into various work positions.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Impact of Culture and Institutional Environment Cultural as well as institutional aspects dictate the manner in which the management of human resources within multinational enterprises is conducted. As such, the MNE operating in the international market must recognize and comprehend the social outline entrenched in international culture to overcome the bottlenecks associated with the customs (Harzing Ruysseveldt, 2004). Recruitment and Selection Recruitment refers to the process of attracting individuals with suitable qualifications to apply for jobs whereas selection is picking the best-suited individuals for positions within an organization from the list of applicants. Culture and institutional environment influences the recruitment and selection of employees within an organization in a number of ways. As such, the firm must consider external and internal aspects in such process. Therefore, several steps must be adhered to in the recruitment and selection process to meet the requ irements of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture as well as the institutional environment. For instance, transparency, fairness and qualification requirement must be considered in the process. Additionally, organizations must eliminate the stereotypes of disrespect and lack of recognition during the process. Further, the comprehensive structured screening method allows the interviewees to elucidate the comprehension of job specifications and how to deal with the obstacles that may be encountered in the execution of their functions (Farndale Paauwe, 2005). Training and Development Training and development are important aspects of HRM. The cultural and institutional environments greatly influence training and development of employees in a number of ways. First, development and training must incorporate the norms and values of employees. In addition, MNEs must undertake the institutional management aspects such as formulating policies, offering funds for execution as well as putting up v arious governing bodies to attain the required strategic goals (Dowling et al., 2013). The management of multinational enterprises believes that future growth and development depends largely on quality training and education system. Therefore, all subsidiaries must rely on the trained personnel from the local public training institutions. As such, nations must ensure that training and education of personnel are geared towards the needs of the industry. Further, MNE should adhere to the institutional requirements of quality training and appropriate education system as an integral part of labor force during the process of production. Therefore, human resource development programs such as training and career development form the foundation of enhancement and mobilization of human capabilities to meet the demands of the labor market (Farndale Paauwe, 2005). Compensation Culture and institutional frameworks have greater impact on compensation. Compensation and reward system of an organi zation remains to be one of the important factors that contribute to the improved work performances among employees. Compensation directly affects performances of employees and remains critical in the attainment of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Therefore, cultural and institutional aspects have to be considered when deciding on the best compensation strategy (Dowling et al., 2013). In other words, employees have diverse values and norms that organizations have to put into consideration while determining effective rewards. Essentially, employees will consider compensation as effective when the types of rewards meet their primary objectives. Often, the central argument is that fair rewards system satisfies the needs of employees, motivates and improves performances. Moreover, the most excellent compensation practices take into account internal institutional processes such employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance management practices as well as competitiveness. Internal balance in the compensa tion practices and design implies the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s activities and practices that ensure the attainment of goals. On the other hand, external institutional aspects such as competitiveness encompass compensation practices in relation to industrial standards or regulatory framework. In most cases, compensation practices follow the regulatory frameworks set by the industry or legal authority. However, the MNE must ensure that its compensation practices are geared towards enhancing employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation and attaining set institutional goals as well as norms and values in order to gain competitive advantage (Caldwell, 2003). In other words, compensation practices must be aligned with the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s general productivity as well as motivation. Task Distribution Within the workplace, variation in the workforce may arise from cultural orientations including race, religion and intellectual heritage. Moreover, diversity in the workplace may result from institutional chara cteristics that include education background of the personnel. In essence, variations found within the personnel emphasizes structure component of the organization. Therefore, HRM managers should be capable of understanding the effects of these dimensions on the work performance, success as well as motivation when distributing tasks. Most importantly, the HRM managers should comprehend how cultural and institutional dimensions bring about diversity in the workplace and the way they affect interactions of workers in the process of task distribution (Caldwell, 2003). Further, culture and institutional environments initiate structures that take into consideration all the dimensions of diversity in the workforce during task distribution. Conclusion In summary, the practices of international HRM and domestic HRM involve a number of commonalities include personnel planning, staffing, recruitment, selection, evaluation and development as well as remuneration. Despite the commonalities in t he practices of domestic and international HRM, two main differences exist in their practices. The differences arise from the complications in operations of international HRM and the employment procedures of personnel from different nations. Additionally, localization and standardization of HRM are practices are critical in the management of MNE. Further, for multinational enterprises to gain competitive edge in operations, the coordination and integration of the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ dispersed organizational units is significant. Moreover, Culture and institutional frameworks have greater impact on compensation and reward system of an organization remains to be one of the important factors that contribute to the improved work performances among employees. References Caldwell, R. (2003). The changing roles of personnel managers: old ambiguities, new uncertainties. Journal of Management Studies, 40(4), 983-1004. Dowling, P. J., Festing, M. Engle, A. D. (2013). International human resource m anagement: managing people in a multinational context. North Way, UK: Cengage Learning EMEA. Farndale, E. Paauwe, J. (2005). The role of corporate HR functions in multinational corporations: The interplay between corporate, regional/national and plant level. Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, 5(10), 8-25. Harzing, A. Ruysseveldt, J. (2004). International human resource management. London:Sage. 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Thursday, March 12, 2020
Answers to Questions About Articles Answers to Questions About Articles Answers to Questions About Articles By Mark Nichol 1. I found the follow information about the indefinite article a in The Oxford Advanced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary: Ã¢â¬Å"used before uncountable nouns when these have an adjective in front of them, or phrase following them. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"a good knowledge of FrenchÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"a sadness that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t go away.Ã¢â¬ I dont understand the information. The dictionary says that the a is used before uncountable nouns when these have an adjective in front of them. But, as far as I know, the indefinite article a cannot be used in front of uncountable nouns. Does the information mean that we can always use the indefinite article a in front of uncountable nouns that have an adjective in front of them? Is it a rule? Mass, or noncount, nouns can be preceded by the indefinite article a when they are modified by a preceding adjective or a subsequent phrase: For example, though you would refer to bravery as courage, not Ã¢â¬Å"a courage,Ã¢â¬ you can write of Ã¢â¬Å"an uncommon courageÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a courage like no other.Ã¢â¬ However, the passage from the resource you mentioned refers only to the possibility of the former type of usage, not to its ubiquity; it is rare. 2. Something I would like some clarification on is the use of a or an before the word holistic. I have been taught an, but this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to make sense to me, as there are many instances when a word beginning with h is preceded by a rather than an. Are you able to shed some light on this? Use a or an before a word that begins with the letter h depending on whether the h is pronounced: Ã¢â¬Å"a historic occasion,Ã¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"an honest mistake.Ã¢â¬ 3. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do with the names of institutions when they call themselves a name with the in the title for example, Ã¢â¬Å"the Open Door.Ã¢â¬ In the middle of a sentence, do you have to capitalize the? Would you say, Ã¢â¬Å"We met at The Open DoorÃ¢â¬ ? The direct article should be lowercase even when it is integral to an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s name (as in Ã¢â¬Å"the American Automobile Association,Ã¢â¬ when it would not be referred to, minus the, as American Automobile AssociationÃ¢â¬ ), but many entities insist on capitalizing it as part of a branding identity. (And itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to do so for indirect articles, as in, for example, the name of a community center called A Place for Teens.) If you work for the Open Door or itÃ¢â¬â¢s giving your organization money or other consideration and management at the Open Door wants the name treated as Ã¢â¬Å"The Open Door,Ã¢â¬ treat it as Ã¢â¬Å"The Open Door.Ã¢â¬ Otherwise, style it Ã¢â¬Å"the Open Door.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Useful Stock Phrases for Your Business EmailsRules for Capitalization in TitlesComment, Suggestion, and Feedback
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Critical Thinking 2 - Speech or Presentation Example All the sectors are related and affect each other. a) For each unit change of an independent variable, the change in the quantity of Chevys sold or demanded is equivalent to the coefficient of the variable. Therefore; a unitary change in the following independent variables will cause a corresponding change in quantity demanded by; The increase in the price of tickets resulted into increased profits in the short-run. However, in the long-run, profits declined owing to the fact that in the long-run, the customer is not willing to purchase the ticket at an increased price. a) These goods conform to the law of demand. This is because the law of demand states that an increase in the price of a commodity would lead to decrease in its demand as consumers would be less willing to purchase the commodity at a higher price, thus leading to a negative price elasticity of demand. On the other hand, an increase in consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income would lead to an increase in demand of the commodity as consumers are able to consume more of the commodity, thus leading to a positive income elasticity of