Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Critique of Artificial Intelligence Essay Example for Free

Study of Artificial Intelligence Essay Writer John Markoff composed the article â€Å"Computer Wins On ‘Jeopardy!’: Trivial, It’s Not†. He talks about how the super PC â€Å"Watson† vanquished the unsurpassed victor of â€Å"Jeopardy!† Ken Jennings. The writer, all through the article, concurs that the supercomputer â€Å"Watson† was a reasonable match against Ken Jennings. I can't help contradicting Markoff for numerous reasons. This was not the slightest bit a reasonable match in light of the fact that the PC had an exceptional capacity to respond to inquiries at super speeds. Likewise, the PC approaches every single accessible inquiry and the capacity to answer them. This was not the slightest bit a reasonable fight between the PC and Ken Jennings. The author’s fundamental thought of this article is principally to state how the supercomputer was a reasonable match between the two. The PC has approaches to respond to addresses that people have no chance to get of doing. The PC can respond to inquiries in practically no time and even milliseconds when the inquiry is posed. It has a super speed capacity to address these inquiries, which gives no an ideal opportunity for the contender to try and get an opportunity to respond to the inquiries given. Along these lines, when the contender has no an ideal opportunity to try and have an endeavor to respond to the inquiry, its absolutely impossible to win. â€Å"Watson† is keen to such an extent that pretty much every inquiry that is posed, he answers effectively. Since I don’t concur with Markoff’s proclamation about â€Å"Watson†, I don’t think his contention is legitimate. The explanation I don’t accept his contention and focuses are legitimate is that a PC that has amazing and brutal like capacities is clearly going to win in an opposition of speed and information. Ken Jennings got no opportunity against this PC. All in all, if a human gets no opportunity against a machine, how might anybody call this a reasonable battle? Presently, Markoff defined his terms plainly and explicitly portray his purposes behind why he thinks what he thinks, so I do give him acknowledgment for that. In any case, I can't help contradicting his contention. I can't help contradicting a large portion of Markoff’s see about the opposition between the PC and Jennings. His central matter of the reasonable rivalry is absolutely undebatable. â€Å"Watson, then again, doesn't foresee the light, however has a weighted plan that permits it, when it is profoundly certain, to hitâ the signal in as meager as 10 milliseconds, making it difficult for people to beat† (Markoff 212). This announcement made by Markoff demonstrates this was not the slightest bit workable for Jennings to beat the super PC. The PC can buzz in at astonishing rates as meager as 10 milliseconds, which is route quicker than some other human might buzz in. In addition, the PC is modified with so much data, that it would no doubt have the option to vanquish Jennings, in light of the insight of this machine the makers customized into it. By and large, I don't accept that this piece distributed by John Markoff is in at any rate substantial. Markoff does anyway prevail with regards to convincing individuals his thoughts and portraying his thoughts and contentions explicitly. He works superbly with his contention and expressing what he thinks. I don't concur with his contention however. My response to this piece is really shocked on the grounds that I don't know how anybody could believe that a PC contending with an exceptionally astute human was reasonable by any stretch of the imagination. The shortcoming of this entry is presumably how it very well may be difficult for somebody to see how a PC can figure out how to achieve this, yet the qualities are acceptable portrayal and articulation of the section. In spite of the fact that he contends very well of his focuses, I not the slightest bit concur with his contention that the fight among â€Å"Watson† and Ken Jennings was reasonable.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Songhai Empire

Beffa 4 The Songhai Empire Alex Beffa Global History April 9, 2012 Beffa 3 The Songhai, otherwise called the Songhay, was the last, yet in addition the biggest and most noteworthy realm of western Africa somewhere in the range of 1000 and 1600 ce. I The past realm was the Mali domain. Songhai was only a customer state at the port of Gao, which was a significant exchanging port for trans-Saharan exchange particularly since it is situated on the Niger waterway. At the point when the Mali domain began to decrease in the 14 th century, the Songhai ruler proclaimed autonomy. I The Songhai domain was the most flourishing west African realm for some reasons however significant ones are: the lords Sunni Ali and Muhammad Ture just as the vanquishing of the city of Timbuktu. Sunni Ali became ruler in 1464. He didn't sit around time holding back to start growing. Not long after coming to control, he went to overcome the extraordinary exchanging port of Timbuktu from the Tuareg plunderers. After Timbuktu was his, Sunni Ali's armed forces went south to the port of Jenne. In 1480, he assaulted the Mossi states south of the Niger river.He had a solid military foundation which helped him become a standout amongst other conquerers and pioneers in African realm history until this point. His best resource was his maritime abilities which is for the most part likely why he ordinarily vanquished ports along the Niger stream. One of his significant headways was the production of an administration. This permitted the Songhai to be a more concentrated realm than the past domains of Ghana and Mali. To help get the Muslim help, Sunni Ali professed to be a Muslim, however he never really left the old customary religions as far as anyone knows because of the conviction that it was the wellspring of his extraordinary powers in battle.In 1492, after a fruitful victory, as indicated by some oral conventions, Sunni Ali suffocated while crossing the Niger waterway. Still others won't acknowled ge this hypothesis, demanding that he kicked the bucket in fight. His rule was from 1464-1492. At the point when Sunni Ali kicked the bucket, one of his children named Sunni Barou dominated. iii Unfortunately, in contrast to his dad, Sunni Barou didn't profess to be Muslim yet rather grasped the old convention. This didn't go over very well with the Muslim people group in the domain. Not long in the wake of taking the seat, Sunni Barou was toppled by an extremely unwavering muslim named Muhammad Ture.Born around 1440, he was a merciless Beffa 4 executioner. He even need so far as to dispose of the remainder of Sunni Ali's relatives. With respect to his method of overseeing, the Islamic religion assumed a major job. He accepted that the spread of islam was significant for two reasons. One, he was a faithful muslim and felt that everybody ought to be. What's more, second, he considered Islam to be an approach to bring together the domain. He sorted out his own organization with 10 for tunes and a manager for each. This permitted him to govern adequately over a tremendous empire.To lower odds of an insubordination, Muhammad Ture would not permit the rulers of the vanquished to keep their capacity yet rather he would supplant them with individuals from his own family. In 1495, Muhammad chose to make a journey to Mecca. In contrast to different rulers, he had the option to leave for significant stretches of time because of how fantastically stable his administration was. After his excursion, he wanted to grow the domain. At the point when Sunni Ali had kicked the bucket, a great number of the states Sunni Ali had vanquished had announced independence.It was dependent upon muhammad to reassert the Songhai’s power over these domains. He had no issue with going on a practically consistent military triumph for near two decades. Like Sunni Ali, Muhammad Ture likewise extended the naval force. After a military life like that, he was fortunate to be around to encoun ter mature age. In 1528 Muhammad was so very much matured that he had lost the drive to proceed with the victories. Likewise he started to go daze, so his child Farimundyo Musa dominated. Farimundyo Musa changed his name to Askia Musa which is the place the Askia line comes from.Askia Musa was killed in 1531 by one of his siblings. Since Muhammad Ture was Islamic and instruction is a major piece of Islam, Muhammad clearly bolstered training. The University of Timbuktu was one of the primary colleges in the entirety of Africa. It pulled in numerous researchers, predominantly Islamic. Exchange carried thriving to the Songhai Empire just as these different advances. iv Timbuktu was, a significant exchanging spot, yet in addition an instructive capital. It bigly affected the Songhai empire.By overcoming this significant port right off the bat in the Songhai realm's life, it set up a kind of establishment. By controlling this port alongside a couple of other key urban communities, they f undamentally overwhelmed the trans-Saharan exchange. Timbuktu Beffa 3 was established by wanderers of the Tuareg in the mid 12 th century. In its initial days, Timbuktu was believed to be mediocre compared to other significant exchanging ports for trans-Saharan exchange, for example, the urban communities of Ghana or Walata in light of the fact that they were increasingly noteworthy. It didn't take long to change individuals' minds.Timbuktu and its sister city Jenne, which was additionally before long vanquished by the Songhai, were in much better situation to the gold field than Walata. Another factor in the ascent of timbuktu was the wanderer Middle Easterners that had been attacking trains along the western courses. Thus, more individuals had been taking the eastern courses through Timbuktu. At last, likely the most signif icant reason timbuktu was such a significant port, Timbuktu was on a point where three significant trans-Saharan courses went: the Mauritanian, Taghaza salt st reet, and the course to In Salah by method of Arawan. Two of the most significant imports and fares of the Songhai realm were salt and gold, however different things included slaves, ivory, cotton textures, grains, and ostrich quills. vi To Timbuktu specifically, the significant ones were gold, salt, slaves, and kola nuts. The salt originated from the salt mines in the Sahara. The gold originated from Bure, Bambuk, and Akan. The others, kola nuts and slaves were kinda of wide spread, originating from a few spots and popular at some more. Normally as a significant exchanging port, Timbuktu had social diffusion.Islamic thoughts were passed around particularly when Muhammad Ture was in power. vii In 1591 a Moroccan power ousted the last lord of the Songhai domain, hence finishing the rule of the best western African realm somewhere in the range of 1100 and 1600. viii They took the capital at Gao and afterward proceeded onward to timbuktu. ix It would bode well that exchange would be th e Songhai's strong point since when the Mali domain was still in power, the Songhai was a significant exchanging spot at the city of Gao. What's more, the large accentuation on having an extraordinary naval force would likewise bode well considering they are situated on the Niger river.The significant explanations behind such a colossal and flourishing domain were the efficient government, joined with remarkable rulers, and failing to have a monetary emergency since they vanquished urban areas like Timbuktu and Jenne directly from the earliest starting point. Beffa 4 Bibliography Fritze, Ronald. â€Å"Timbuktu. † In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2004-. Gotten to April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. Insoll, Timothy A. â€Å"Trade and Empire. † Archeaology 53, no. 6 (november 2000): 48 MAS Ultra-School Edition, Ebscohost (got to February 5, 2012). Page, Willie F.Encyclopedia of African History and Culture. USA: A Learning Source Bo ok, 2001 William, Oscar. â€Å"Songhai Empire. † In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABCCLIO, 2004-. Gotten to February 5, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abcclio. com/search/show/601432? terms=songhai World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Africa, 3000 BCE-1500 BCE,† air conditioning cessed February 4, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abcclio. com/search/show/588506? terms=medieval+africa+songhai World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Askia dynasty,† got to April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. bc-clio. com/. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Muhammad Ture,† got to April 15, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Sunni Ali,† got to April 8, http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. 2012. I Oscar William. â€Å"Songhai Empire. † In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2004-. Gotten to February 5, 2012. http://ancienthi story. abc-clio. com/search/show/601432? terms=songhai ii World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Sunni Ali,† got to April 15, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. om/. iii World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Sunni Ali,† iv World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Muhammad Ture,† got to April 15, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. v Ronald Fritze. â€Å"Timbuktu. † In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2004-. Gotten to April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. vi World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Muhammad Ture,† vii Fritze viii World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. â€Å"Askia dynasty,† got to April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. ix Fritze

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Kite Fight in The Kite Runner Essay Example

The Kite Fight in The Kite Runner Essay A kite flying noticeable all around, abruptly gets struck and chop somewhere near another kite. This is a normal movement in the city of Kabul. It is called kite battling. Amir’s life in The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, is spoken to by the large kite battling competition in Kabul that Amir and Hassan make a decent attempt to win. The main thing that relates Amir’s life to the large kite battle is the manner by which Hassan remains by Amir’s side and causes him in the kite battle (his kite sprinter), simply like for the duration of Amir’s life Hassan is continually waiting with Amir. Regardless of whether Hassan isn't there genuinely, his quality despite everything crosses Amir’s mind ordinarily. Hassan lives inside Amir all through his entire life. One instance of when Hassan springs up in Amir’s mind is the point at which he is going out he says, â€Å"Earlier that morning, when I was sure nobody was looking, I accomplished something I h ad done twenty six years sooner: I planted a fistful of folded cash under a mattress,† (Hosseini 242). Indeed, even twenty after six years Amir is as yet considering what he did to Hassan’s life and eventually his own. Amir continually is pondering what he did to Hassan and his father, and how extraordinary it would be in the event that he had not put the cash and watch under his sleeping pad. During the kite battle Hassan stays by Amir for each second of the battle, much the same as Hassan remains in Amir’s mind for as long as he can remember. To add to the contention Hassan was additionally still with Amir when Rahim Khan comes to converse with Amir and says, â€Å"Ali was sterile, Rahim Khan said. No he wasn’t. He and Sanaubar had Hassan, didn’t they? They had Hassan.. No they didn’t, Rahim Khan said,† (Hosseini 222). Hassan was all along Amir’s sibling. This was after Hassan had kicked the bucket as well, so even past the gr ave Hassan was all the while influencing Amir. In addition to the fact that amir was influenced by this, he at long last associated the entirety of the specks to things like why Baba always remembered Hassan’s birthday, or why Baba appeared to like their Hazara worker the same amount of as

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Term Paper Online - 3 Options For Term Paper Online

Term Paper Online - 3 Options For Term Paper OnlineAs the term paper online becomes more popular, it is important to know that there are various ways to do this online. Some of the methods include using a paperless tool such as Google Docs, using a journal format of writing online, and using an online web application.Using paperless software for term papers is one method of doing this. There are various free options that can be used to avoid having to buy a paper to put in your classroom. Of course, it is up to you to determine which software to use.If you are going to use the Google Docs option to do term paper online, you will need to have an internet connection. If you choose to write your term paper with a journal format, you will need to make sure that the journal format is something that is available online as well. If the term paper online solution is using an online application, you will need to find out whether or not the online application is compatible with your operating system. If it is not, you will have to download the application to your computer before using it.The online tool, you will want to consider using for term paper online is Google Docs. This tool has built-in features that allow you to manage your assignments online. One of the things you will want to consider is the ability to 'add' files to your project. Of course, it is important to make sure that this feature is available before using this tool.Another way to do term paper online is to use a journal format for your term paper. This type of paper is generally easier to work with and requires less typing. The disadvantage is that there is no easy way to add files to a journal format, but it is easier to manipulate your project and also to incorporate changes that you make.The third way to do term paper online is to use an online web application. Although these applications are less common, there are some good ones that can make online work easy. Many of the online web applications h ave built-in resources that can make it easier to complete projects, including tasks, and deadlines.Although term paper online has become increasingly popular, there are still ways to do this. Make sure that you research the options that are available before making your decision.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Abortion For Against - 1334 Words

Abortion: For? Against? Since the legalization of abortion in 1973, over 57 million unborn children have been killed, more than the entire population of Spain! (Guttmacher) I strongly disagree with abortion, no one should be able to kill the baby/babies growing inside of a woman. It takes innocent lives of unborn human beings that are, living, unique babies with a heartbeat! There are many things that can go wrong when having or thinking about having an abortion, such as it is damaging to relationships and families, there are many harsh ways to abort a baby, which can cause some problems also, and it could cause emotional damage to one. Whenever a family member dies, everyone is affected. It would be no different than a harmless child losing their lives. The thought of it never really goes away. It is always there, in the back of your mind, waiting for the chance to pop back up again. Even with time it will never ease, the thought of what you did. It compounds tragedy. Sometimes, th e circumstances of a woman becoming pregnant, aren’t so great. Maybe she was raped or the baby has been diagnosed with a defect or complications. Although, one tragedy is not to be answered with another. They must now be forced into a spur of the moment decision, to take the life a child instead of giving them a chance to defy the odds. After an abortion, the rate of marital breakups and relationship dissolution is anywhere from 40 to 75 per cent, often related to the breakdown of intimacyShow MoreRelatedAgainst Abortion Essay1320 Words   |  6 PagesAgainst Abortion Abortion has been one of the many controversial topics being an issue in America, and it has been in some parts of world today. People say that abortion is big business, meaning that today it can give America lots of money for all the young girls getting pregnant and making them abort., a site managed by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, says that there are 750,000 teen pregnancies annually in America. Some of these pregnancies occurRead MoreArguments For And Against Abortion1590 Words   |  7 PagesArguments for and Against Abortion The battle over whether to legalize or ban abortion in the United States has greatly increased in recent years; the moral, ethical and legal had been a continuous fight in our society. The abortion issue is also the most passionate and debatable in the United States to whether allow one to have free will over their body or have the government make that decision. Furthermore, it is one of the leading debates in political races. In this society everyone has aRead MoreAbortion Argument Against Abortion749 Words   |  3 PagesDoes a women’s right to choose to have an abortion outweigh a baby’s right to be born? The controversy at hand is whether the rights of a women outweigh the rights of a baby, and whether a mother should be given the rights to pursue a procedure like an abortion. To clarify an abortion is a medical procedure that ends a pregnancy in which a doctor uses a vacuum and suction to suck out a fetus from the uterus. The issue is whether the fetus who has th e potential to be a rational, productive human beingRead More Against Abortion Essay1916 Words   |  8 PagesAgainst Abortion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why is it that by 21 days into the fetal development the babys heart begins to beat, but yet in most peoples eyes the baby is still not technically alive That heart beat means nothing, it doesnt represent a human person whom God has created in his own image and has had a plan for that baby ever since the beginning of time. To most people that statement isn?t allowing women and their families freedom of choice. And yet that baby isnt given any say in its freedomRead MoreAgainst Or Forward About Abortion1749 Words   |  7 PagesMiriam Ochoa English 1 Professor Pelonis June 2 , 2016 Against or Forward about Abortion Today’s society consists of many health concerns, unresolved, and controversial issues. Many of these issues can be viewed in relation to one’s morals, ethics, and religious beliefs. This creates a society that is divided by opposing viewpoints. The 2012 Merriam-Webster dictionary defines abortion as, â€Å"The termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the deathRead MoreArguments Against Abortion Essay1286 Words   |  6 PagesThe debate on whether abortion should be legal, or illegal has become a controversial topic that has divided the nation into two. The group of people who don’t see anything wrong with the issue refer to their group as pro-choice supporters. Their main belief about abortion is that because a woman’s body belongs to herself it should be up to her on whether she wants to keep a baby or not. Those who are against abortion and feel it should be illegal think of themselves as pro-life sup porters. TheyRead MoreOutline Of The Laws Against Abortion1376 Words   |  6 PagesOutline Title – Laws against Abortion Complete the sentence The Purpose of this Paper is . . . The purpose of this paper is to show how the states are creating laws to try and prohibit abortions and how these laws are putting unnecessary hardships on the women trying to receive them. Introduction Abortion is a controversial topic within the United States; states are allowed to make different laws in regards to the topic but must not go against the 14th amendment of the constitution. Many lawsRead MoreBiblical Argument Against Abortions1513 Words   |  7 PagesEthics February 2, 2013 Rational Argument Against Abortions Biblical Argument Against Abortions In this paper, I will discuss arguments against abortions. The first sets of arguments I will discuss are biblical arguments. That being said, I must begin by acknowledging that the Bible doesn’t say anything about abortion directly. Abortion was so unthinkable to an Israelite woman that there was no need to even mention it in the criminal code. Why was abortion an unthinkable act? First, children wereRead MoreThe Main Barrier Against The Abortion1799 Words   |  8 PagesAbortion has always been a controversial topic for several decades. In Latin America, there is approximately a triple abortion rate when compared to those who live in Western Europe (Sedgh et al., 2016). This is because of a pervasive unspoken belief, contraception and highly restrictive abortion laws (Dzuba, Winikoff and Peà ±a, 2013). Women who resort to private and unsafe methods to end unexpected or unwanted pregnancies could expose themselves to the risk of complications and fatality ratio. TheRead Mor eArgument Against Abortion On Demand934 Words   |  4 PagesIn this essay I shall argue against abortion on demand. By abortion on demand I mean the taking of life, of the fetal life, and how a woman could enter her doctor s office or local women s health clinic and ask, or â€Å"demand†, to have an abortion, she would then be able to get the next available appointment to do just that. There are several different reasons why one may be pro-life. A few arguments against abortion may include how abortion should not be used as another form of contraception, and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Presidency of James Madison - 1497 Words

President James Madison held the white house office from 1808-1816. During his tenure he had to deal with the ramifications of his policies from when he was Secretary of State under Thomas Jefferson and The War of 1812. These two major points are what shaped most of his presidential terms. It was his second term that helped with the postwar expansion of America and the split in the Democratic Party system. It was also during his second term that he helped America gain it’s economic independence from Great Britain. After his terms of office were over he retired home to his plantation and joined an university council to help settle disputes about issues among the states such as the freed slaves. James Madison ran for president in election 1808. In this election the Democratic Republican competed against Charles C. Pinkney from South Carolina and Rufus King from New York. Anti-Madison newspapers were printed out immediately, with the Federalist Party’s directing, criticizing Madison and his Belief in the Embargo Act which he helped to shape in 1807. However, by early December few had doubts on who would emerge as victorious in the election campaign. So when Madison won by a devastating landslide, 144 votes to Pinkney’s 44, few were surprised by the outcome. Madison’s public favor had multiple high and low points throughout his career. Like other presidents who entered office in unfavorable times, Madison was criticized for everything he did the moment he entered office. FromShow MoreRelatedA Birth Of A Legend1663 Words   |  7 PagesIt was a birth of a legend; it did not start with â€Å"once up one a time† because the story was not a fiction, but the man himself was like a fictional hero. Father of a nation. James Madison born in Port Conway Virginia, from James Madison and Eleanor Rose Conway in 1751. He was youngest of twelve kids, and only seven of them could made through adulthood. His father was a tobacco planter having more than 4,000-acre land and many slaves. Life was not generous and compassionate when it came to his healthRead MoreThe Life Of James Madison Essay1418 Words   |  6 Pages The Life of James Madison Madison Williams Central High School November 9, 2015 3rd Period Abstract In my paper I will state and explain the least known aspects of James Madison. James Madison contributed to some of the most simple and complex events that have not been recognized. For his job well done, I am willing to make those aspects known. The Life of James Madison James Madison, also known as â€Å"The Father on the Constitution†, contributed to quite a few intellectual eventsRead MoreA Perfect Union By Catherine Allgor Essay1488 Words   |  6 PagesUnion by Catherine Allgor describes the life of Dolley Madison starting with her first marriage to John Todd whom she only married because her bed-ridden father told her to. Although the marriage to John was a happy marriage it was soon brought to an abrupt end when the yellow fever hit; killing Dolley’s husband and younger son. The newly widowed Dolley took many trips into town and soon she caught the attention of Congressman James Madison who fell so madly in love with her. This attraction ledRead MoreJames Madison : The First President Of The United States991 Words   |  4 Pages James Madison was the smallest elected president of the United States; he measured 5 feet 4 inches and weighing less than 100 pounds. He was born on March 16, 1751 in Port Conway, Virginia. Madison Jr. was born in a family where tobacco planting was the main resource of income. His father James Madison Sr., owned a huge tobacco plantation with his mother Nelly Conway. Madison was the oldest of 10 children, and as a young kid he suffered from psychosomatic, epilepsy, and voice impairmentRead More1998 Dbq Essay1116 Words   |  5 PagesHour Although Republicans and Federalists were characterized as having particular views towards the implementation of the Constitution, the Jefferson and Madison presidencies prove that even though virtually they believe one thing, realistically they could very possibly act another way. Following the making of the Constitution, James Madison brought forth the warning of political factions or parties as we know today in one of his many inputs into the Federalist Papers. As the Constitution was offeredRead MoreThe Life and Accomplishments of James Madison995 Words   |  4 PagesJames Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia on March 16th, 1751. Madison received an education at the college of New Jersey and graduated in 1771. He studied Latin, geography, and Philosophy. In 1774 he joined the local committee of safety which was a patriot group that monitored the actions of the local militia. Two years later Madison became a delegate in the Virginia convention and took part in the framing of the Virginia constitution. During the general election for delegates in the stateRead MoreEssay The Creation of the American Republicn - James Madison1169 Words   |  5 PagesThe Creation of the American Republicn - James Madison James Madison prided himself on his knowledge from books and theories. Madison was born into a class of Virginia planters. His father was the wealthiest landowner in Virginia and it was known that Madison would lead a financially secure life. This factor helped him in his pursuit of education. He gained opportunities to go to elite schools because of his status. Madison was ambitious and he graduated from the College of New Jersey a year earlyRead MoreBiography of James Madison: The Father of the Constitution Essay991 Words   |  4 Pages James Madison,widely known as the â€Å"Father of the Constitution† was born on March 16,1751 in Port Conway,Virginia. He was born into a wealthy family. His father,James Madison Sir.,gained wealth from inheritance and his mother’s, Kelly Conway, side of the family were also rich as her father made a living by being a tobacco merchant. A surprising fact that,despite coming from a such preposterous family, James was rather ill as a child. Madison was a victim to psychosomatic and as well as stress-inducedRead MoreTo What Extent Did The Presidencies Of Jefferson And Madison Reduce The Tensions Of The 1790s?1167 Words   |  5 PagesCaiser Bravo Rigg APUSH 6 October, 2015 To what extent did the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison reduce the tensions of the 1790s? The presidency of George Washington was a difficult pair of terms to follow. John Adams tried to follow the precedent that the first president had set, but the second president only managed to polarize the nation among two parties: the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Although his decisions are today looked at with mixed feelings, at the time John Adams fellRead MoreThe Founding Fathers : Virginia1589 Words   |  7 PagesIn March of 1751, James Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia to Nellie and James Madison. Once he reached eighteen, Madison attended the College of New Jersey, more commonly known today as Princeton (â€Å"James Madison’s Biography†). During this time period, it was strange for a man to go beyond the colony for his education (â€Å"The Founding Fathers: Virginia†). However, Madison went against the social norm, which ultimately gave him an advantage by broadening his understandings of all the different

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

English Language Colleges and Universities

Question: Discuss about theEnglish Language for Colleges and Universities. Answer: Introduction The language assessment or language testing refers to the field, which study about the first, second or other languages taught in schools, colleges or universities. According to Jenkins Leung, (2013), the part of applied linguistic focuses on the assessment of the language used in the workplace context or in the citizenship, immigration and asylum contest. In general, the assessment helps the students in the schools or colleges to analyse their learning and improvement. In this essay, the language test has been evaluated through a classroom-based assessment to assess the improvements in the students understanding of skills and communication. It has two main priorities that indicate the overall impact of the learning procedures followed in the classroom. The study has discussed the various processes of language testing to analyse the students capacities and improvements to test their language learning process (Cohen, 2014). Therefore, the purpose of the classroom-based assessment has been disclosed to set the objectives of the study and then the role of teachers or assessors has been evaluated to analyse the overall testing process. Discussion The purpose of classroom-based assessment is to test the learning improvement of the students in a class whether the study procedure is helping them to improve their understanding about the lessons in class. According to Kaplan, (2015), assessments are required to develop the skills of the students about what they had learnt from the lessons in class. These assessments can be conducted in various manners and every process has its own pros and cons. Therefore, it is the responsibility of a teacher to decide which assessment process should be best for the students to measure their improvement. There are other purposes of this classroom-based assessment. It helps to inform and guide the teachers about the teaching and learning processes, helps students to set their learning goals and motivate the students for improving their skills. In thus study, the essential objectives are to analyse the effect of lessons taught in the classes on students, to evaluate their improvement in classes, t o analyse the benefits of the learning processes and to assess the effectiveness of teaching procedures in classes. Therefore, the study is focussing on the purpose of the assessments to meet these objectives. There are some processes or assessments instruments for assessing the learning improvements of the students. The students can be accessed through the activities of quizzes, writing assignments, tests and many more, which have the facility to get the outcome instantly. Therefore, this kind of assessments has proved to be effective as the teachers can easily identify the drawbacks of the students through this. As opined by Yu, (2014), the language can be learnt through formal, informal, assessed, not assessed, structured, unstructured, fun, arduous, and essential and hobby or interest. The formal setting can be in the kindergartens, language centres, schools, clubs, universities, workplaces, short courses and TAFES. In these settings, the students can be accessed through the school like environment where the content is almost set from earlier. The processes of assessments also are formal in these settings and the students are assessed based on the qualifications and accreditations. On the other hand, the informal setting is the called in the setting of homely environment where the students can learn with their family or friends or in a homely ambiance (Richards Rodgers, 2014). In these cases, the assessment process follows the interest of the students who are learning from various practical incidents rather than the formal contents that have set before. The assessments in this case will find out the effectiveness of the learning in the outcome of social connectedness and life skills. There can be another type of assessment, which focuses on the interest or fun or hobby of the learner to analyse their improvements. Therefore, the processes in which the improvement can be analysed properly of a students is perfect for the students to assess them. There are some classroom-based assessments such as, alternative, educational, authentic, informal, formative and statutory (Bygate, Swain Skehan, 2013). All these assessment processes have their individual importance. The quiz is one of the assessments processes that help to improve the practice of regular lessons through a fun activity. The teachers to reduce the stress level of the students between classes can use it. As quiz is considered as a fun game rather learning, therefore, the students find it more interesting to participate. However, it is a fun game; the teacher can assess the improvements of the students from this classroom-based assessment procedure. Apart from this, there are many ways to assess the students in classes with fun activities like quiz. Likewise, debate competition can also be used to analyse the understanding of the students about the language-based subjects such as English. On the other hand, the writing assignments can be very helpful for the students to assess their learning. If the students cannot understand the subject properly, then they cannot develop the content in writing to explain their understanding (Kunnan, 2013). Therefore, it can be used as an assessment program to analyse the students improvements through assessment. General class tests also can be the assessment process for understanding the improvement in a frequent manner. Although it is a formal process, which the students have to face in the classes and the teachers think, it can be the most effective process to assess a students whether he or she is able to learn the language in a proper way or not. Therefore, in this case the teachers have to play a crucial role to develop the questions based on which it can be analysed the students improvements. All these processes are helpful to meet the objectives in this study to get the benefit of the purposes of classroom-based assessments for language testing. There are some language assessment approaches to conduct this classroom-based assessment such as, Discrete-point testing approach, Communicative Testing Approach, Integrative Testing Approach and Performance testing approach (Knig et al., 2014). The Discrete-point testing approach is the process that can assess the students understanding about the components of language. Any language can be divided into its component parts and can be tested through the assessments like reading, writing, speaking, listening, phonology, lexicon, syntax and morphology. This discrete point tests are aiming to achieve a high reliability factor by testing a large number discrete items. In the Communicative Testing Approach, the students communication level on a particular language is tested through the teachers or assessors. In this case, the test should be conducted through the processes of listening, speaking, writing and reading. In the testing procedure, the teachers can assess the students in involvin g them into various pretending situations to test their communication levels in that Language. Therefore, it can be considered as the performance based testing approach for the language assessment. Along with this, the approach of Integrative Testing helps to put back the language skills, which were taken out from the language with discrete items (Richards Schmidt, 2013). Additionally, it helps to assess the capacity of a learner to understand the capability of the person to communicate through the language, which they are learning. Apart from this, there is another approach Performance testing approach to evaluate the performance level of learner after learning the language. The performance level can be accessed through the various testing processes to assess their improvements. According to McLaughlin, (2013), this approach has some principles such as, in this process the teachers have to state the overall goal of the performance and to analyse the performance level they have to evaluate the performance checking process and then can test the performance. This process will help the assessors to understand the improvement of the students. All these are some important approaches that help the assessors to analyse the students improvement in the learning process. The role of the assessor or the teacher plays a crucial part in the process of classroom-based assessment. The teachers have to serve internal and external responsibilities to complete the assessments processes. Monitoring the assessment processes, keeping records of the progress of students and giving the results to other teachers as well as parents and students, selection, certification and meeting statutory requirements are the main responsibilities of an assessor. As per the point of view of some of the eminent scholars, assessment is the systematic procedures based on which one individual student has been tasted as per the knowledge, skills and competencies. Only teaching and learning process is not enough for evaluating the minds of students. Students should be tasted time to time in order to know their learning progress. Teachers have to play a major role in the entire process of assessment (Allen et al., 2013). While dealing with the students within a classroom, teachers should gather detailed information regarding the problems and obstacles of the students. Based on those issues an ideal teacher should proceed for enhancing the mental skills and development of students. However, this particular essay has provided an in-depth understanding about the role of teachers for arranging the entire process of assessment effectively. As stated by Astin (2012), assessment is one of the most effective ways of data collection procedure based on which the teachers can evaluated the growth and the progress of the students. After conducting an entire class, the students may not be able to understand that the teachers have conveyed in the classroom (Reschly Christenson, 2012). Therefore, assessment is the only way, based on which teachers can get an in-depth overview about the learning improvement of every individual student equally. Before, conducting an assessment the teachers generally tend to take an effective remedial class (Treagust, 2012). In this particular class, every student within the classroom is allowed to throw any questions related to their study. This particular class is considered as interactive session where the students have to play a major role along with the teachers. After clarifying the doubt to the students, teachers tend to take an effective interaction with them. Teacher intends to ask some o f the basic questions to the students based on which they can evaluate whether students have understood or not. After conducting the remedial session, the entire process of assessment is started so that students can carry good marks. At the time of this assessment, teachers have to follow some of the major factors (Brown, Bull Pendlebury, 2013). The teachers should follow the expression of every individual student on how they are feeling comfortable with the assessment questions. If any individual students are followed uncomfortable with the assessment paper, the teacher should note the name of this individual as soon as possible. After the end of the session this particular students should be taken an effective interview session in order to know the problems individually. At the same time, some of the major factors should be taken into consideration. At the time of conducting the assessment, teachers should maintain strictness at the assessment hall. Students should not discuss with each other at the time of assessment session. All the solutions should be conducted at the own competency of the students (Crisp, 2012). However, after conducting the entire process of assessment, teachers should evaluate the data about the performance of students. The students who have performed well in the entire session should not be highlighted. Teachers should enjoy the success the achievement of student learning process. In the assessment, the students who have failed to provide an effective feedback should get more guidance and training from the teachers. The role of an ideal teacher in this particular case should be more vital (Falchikov, 2013). At the very first stage, teacher should identify the student who has failed to perform well in the assessment after collecting data. After identifying this individual, the teacher should make an effective session in order to know the problem. A friendly environment should be needed to deal with such kinds of students (Treagust, 2012). Teachers while making the face-to-face interaction should maintain a polite and humble approach to the students so that the students do not hesitate to share their point of views. The role of an ideal teacher should be providing equal respect and dignity to the students from different culture and background (Healey, 2014). While dealing with the different kinds of learners, the teachers tend to come into close contact with students from various attitudes. However, it has been observed that the students have faced immense difficulties and challenges for maintaining their learning process due to the family background. As a result, those students fail to communicate properly with the teachers at the classroom (Imrie et al., 2014). These are the major problems, due to which students fail to provide their best performance in the assessment. The teacher should deal with those students especially. One of the major roles of an ideal teacher is to provide equal priority and response to the students of every culture and background. Arranging parents teacher meeting is also been considered as one of the most effective initiatives for improving the future growth of the students. The mental and learning growth of a student is highly dependent on the family background of a particular student. After collecting sufficient data and information from the assessments, the teacher should make an effective interaction with the parents individually (Piech et al., 2013). Teachers should give an in-depth overview regarding the growth and the success of an individual. The students who have provided negative feedback on the assessment need guidance that is more effective. Therefore, parents would have to take a major initiative regarding the factor as well, so that their children can get a successful future. The role of an eminent teacher in this case is not only to convince the students, but also to make the parents understand on how their children can grow their mental skill and ability (Reschly Christenson, 2012). The paren ts should provide a good environment to their children so that they can get a sufficient time for continuing their study. Conclusion The intention of this study is to analyse the purpose of classroom-based assessment and the various processes to find the importance or usefulness of the assessment. The usefulness of these procedures has been analysed and the role and responsibilities of the assessors has been evaluated to understand the importance of language test through classroom-based assessment. However, the entire essay has provided an in-depth understanding about the importance of assessment for improving the future growth of the students. At the same time the role of teachers have also been provided equal priority in this particular study. 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